Python - Intermediate

By: Yijiang Zhao & Matthew Qu

This guide assumes a basic knowledge of Python and Python syntax. If you need a reference or a refresher, check out HODP's Python for beginners here.

File I/O

We often have data stored outside of Python, such as in Excel spreadsheets or other files. Of course, manually copying over external data into Python would be tedious and also extremely time-consuming if we are working with large amounts of data. Fortunately, Python supports various operations that allow us to easily manipulate files in our programs.

Opening files

The built-in open() function can be used to open a file. open() has the following syntax:

open(filename[, mode])
note

open() has several other optional arguments that may be useful in certain cases, but we won't discuss them here. You can read more about it in the documentation.

The first argument, filename, is either a relative or absolute path to the file that we want to open. The second argument, mode, specifies whether we want to read, write, or append to the file. Below is a summary of the different access modes:

r - read-only: Default mode. Used when a file only needs to be read and not edited. The file pointer is placed at the beginning of the file.
w - write-only: Used when a file needs to be edited. If the file does not exist, it is created, and the file pointer is placed at the beginning of the file. This mode overwrites all current information in an existing file by deleting the file and creating a new one.
x - exclusive creation: Used to create a new file. The call will fail if the file already exists.
a - append: Used when a file needs to be edited. This mode does not overwrite existing information, and it will create a new file if it does not exist. The file pointer is placed at the end of the file, so new information will be added after existing information.
+ - update: Used when a file needs to be read and edited. This mode allows for both reading and writing.

In addition, we can also specify if we want to read and write in text mode (t), where data is translated to text characters, or binary mode (b), where data is translated to individual 0 or 1 bits. By default, files are opened in text mode.

If the mode argument is not given, then the file is opened in read mode. Otherwise, mode must contain one of the read, write, create, or append characters, followed by the update and/or binary characters if they are desired. For example, if we wanted to append and read to a file in binary mode, we would call open("file.txt", "a+b").

After we have opened a file and are finished with it, we need to close it to free up any resources that were associated with the file. We do this using the close() function:

f = open("file.txt", "r+") # opens a file for reading and writing
# do stuff with file
f.close()

However, if our program encounters an error while the file is still open, it will exit before closing the file. Python's automated garbage collection (i.e. Python's way of keeping track of memory usage) usually makes this not a big deal, but it is still good practice to close files properly whenever possible. A more robust way of ensuring our file properly closes uses the with keyword:

with open("file.txt", "r+") as f:
# do stuff with file

This creates a new file object named f, and after the program exits the with block, the file is automatically closed.

File operations

There are several methods to read files. One way of reading a file is to use the read([size]) function. If read is called without an argument, it will read the entire file and store it as a string (in text mode) or byte objects (in binary mode). If we specify the size argument, read() will only read the next size characters in the file. For example, suppose we have a file, file.txt, with the following text:

This is line 1
This is line 2
This is line 3

Then, we can use read() to print out the entire text:

with open("file.txt", "r+") as f:
text = f.read()
print(text)
# Output
This is line 1
This is line 2
This is line 3

If we read from the same file object multiple times, it will continue reading from where we left off. This allows us to split large files into smaller, more manageable, pieces.

with open("file.txt", "r+") as f:
print(f.read(6))
print(f.read(6))
# Output
This i
s line

We can use the tell() function to return the current position of the file pointer. If we want to change the pointer position, we use the seek() function. seek() has the following syntax:

seek(offset[, from_what])

where offset is the number of characters from a specified position, which is determined by the from_what argument. from_what can be

  • 0 - indicating the start of the file (default)
  • 1 - indicating the current pointer position
  • 2 - indicating the end of the file

In text mode, from_what can only be 0 (so it can be omitted), or in the single case of seek(0, 2), which moves the pointer to the end of the file. For example, given a file object f, we can call f.seek(0) to bring us to the start of the file.

note

Whitespaces and newline characters (\n) count as characters. In the example above, the first line has 15 characters: 10 letters, 1 number, 3 whitespaces, and 1 newline character.

readline() is another function that, by default, returns a string from the current file pointer to the next line (including the newline character). It also has a optional size argument that works in the same way as in read(), although it will never read past the end of the line, even if size is greater than the length of the line.

Another useful function is readlines(), which returns a list of all lines in the file. However, if we want to loop through every line in the file, we can loop through the file object directly:

with open("file.txt", "r+") as f:
for line in f:
print(line.replace("\n", "")) # removes the newline character from each line
# Output
This is line 1
This is line 2
This is line 3

We can also write to a file using the write() function. Remember that using the write mode will completely overwrite all existing data, so let us use the append mode:

with open("file.txt", "a+") as f:
f.write("\nThis is the last line")

Note that we must include any newline characters ourselves. Because our text file did not have a new line at the end, we first add it at the start of our string. Now, file.txt has the following:

This is line 1
This is line 2
This is line 3
This is the last line
important

write() only accepts string arguments. To write numerical or other non-string data to a file, you must first cast it to a string.

Writing into the middle of an existing file is more difficult. We cannot use w because this overwrites our data, and using a overrides any seek() calls and appends data at the end of the file. We can work around this by reading the file into a list, inserting any new data into the list, and then overwriting the old file.

with open("file.txt", "r") as f:
file_list = f.readlines()
file_list.insert(3, "This is line 4\n") # inserts a new line at index 3, which is line 4
with open("file.txt", "w") as f:
file_string = "".join(file_list) # joins the list into a single string
f.write(file_string)

Now, when we inspect file.txt, we can see that our changes have been successful:

This is line 1
This is line 2
This is line 3
This is line 4
This is the last line

Reading CSVs

When working with data, we sometimes have information that has already been organized. One such common file type is a comma-separated values (CSV) file. Python has two functions that allow us to easily read CSVs: reader() and DictReader(). These are both located in the csv module.

reader() is best suited for small CSV files. Each row in the CSV is returned as a list of strings, so we can access data using indices. For example, suppose we had a CSV file students.txt with the following information:

name,grade,concentration
Albert,junior,computer science
Brianna,sophomore,economics
Charlie,freshman,government

We can use reader() to parse through this data:

import csv
with open("students.csv") as f:
reader = csv.reader(f, delimiter=",")
for row in reader:
print(row)
# Output
['name', 'grade', 'concentration']
['Albert', 'junior', 'computer science']
['Brianna', 'sophomore', 'economics']
['Charlie', 'freshman', 'government']

We can alter our code slightly to give a summary of the data in our CSV:

import csv
with open("students.csv") as f:
reader = csv.reader(f, delimiter=",")
line = 0
for row in reader:
if line == 0:
print("This is a summary of students' {}, {}, and {}".format(row[0], row[1], row[2]))
line += 1
else:
print("{} is a {} concentrating in {}".format(row[0], row[1], row[2]))
# Output:
This is a summary of students' name, grade, and concentration
Albert is a junior concentrating in computer science
Brianna is a sophomore concentrating in economics
Charlie is a freshman concentrating in government

DictReader() is useful for reading in large CSV files. It works similarly to reader(), but as its name suggests, it stores data in dictionaries rather than lists.

import csv
with open("students.csv") as f:
reader = csv.DictReader(f, delimiter=",")
for row in reader:
print(row)
# Output
{'name': 'Albert', 'grade': 'junior', 'concentration': 'computer science'}
{'name': 'Brianna', 'grade': 'sophomore', 'concentration': 'economics'}
{'name': 'Charlie', 'grade': 'freshman', 'concentration': 'government'}

Using DictReader() makes data easier to work with because we access information using keys instead of indices, which makes our code much more understandable (row["names"] will return a name, but row[0] doesn't have the same clarity). By default, DictReader() uses the first row of the CSV as dictionary keys, but it accepts an optional argument fieldnames which takes an ordered sequence (e.g. a tuple or list) and uses its elements as keys.

tip

reader() and DictReader() can also be used to read most delimiter-separated value (DSV) files by changing the delimiter argument when necessary. Common delimiters include commas, tabs, and colons, although vertical bars and spaces are also sometimes used.

There are many other Python modules which have their own methods for reading in external data. One popular module is pandas, which is designed for data manipulation and analysis. Check out HODP's introduction to pandas here!

Classes

Python is an object-oriented programming language. Classes allow us to create our own objects beyond the built-in types that Python offers. Classes can contain variables and functions that together provide the structure of a new object.

Classes are created by using the class keyword. By convention, class names are capitalized. Let's create a simple class with no variables or functions:

class MyClass:
pass
tip

The pass keyword is a null statement that can be inserted into empty classes, functions, loops, and conditional statements to prevent errors from occurring. It is useful as a placeholder for future code.

We can now create an instance of our class as follows:

new_class = MyClass()

Of course, our new_class instance doesn't do anything right now, so let's add a variable and function to our class:

class MyClass:
var = 3
def my_function(self):
print("This is a function inside a class.")

Now, when we initialize the instance new_class = MyClass(), we can access the variables and functions using the dot operator:

new_class.var # returns 3
new_class.my_function() # prints "This is a function inside a class."

The call new_class.my_function() works even though my_function is defined with the self parameter inside the class. This is because self refers to the instance of the class, and the object itself is passed as the first argument whenever we call a function inside a class. Therefore, new_class.my_function() is equivalent to MyClass.my_function(new_class), and both call my_function in the instance new_class.

In general, whenever we want to define a function inside a class, the first argument will be self, followed by any arguments the function might have. These are called instance methods because they require an instance of the class to populate the self parameter. Instance methods are used most often inside a class, but you can find an explanation of other types of functions here.

The __init__() function

One important function when dealing with functions is __init__(). The __init__() function, also known as a constructor, is called whenever a new object of a class is instantiated. __init__() must have first argument self, but we can also specify additional arguments. Let's create a class Fraction that will represent rational numbers:

class Fraction:
def __init__(self, numer: int, denom: int = 1):
self.numer = numer
self.denom = denom

Here, we specify that numer and denom must be integers, and denom has default value 1 if the second argument is not provided. Now, when we create an instance of Fraction, we must provide the numer argument (and optionally the denom argument), and those values are then assigned to self.numer and self.denom respectively. For example, we can create two instances of the Fraction class:

frac1 = Fraction(3, 4)
frac2 = Fraction(2)

Because __init__() is automatically called when a new object is instantiated, we see that frac1.numer and frac1.denom have values 3 and 4, respectively. Likewise, frac2.numer has value 2, and we default the value of frac2.denom to 1 because a second argument was not provided. The two instances have different values for numer and denom; hence, they are called instance variables. In contrast, class variables are shared among all instances of a class (such as the variable var in the example MyClass above). They are defined outside the __init__() method.

tip

The vars() function returns a dictionary of all instance variables and their values:

frac1 = Fraction(3, 4)
print(vars(frac1))
# Output
{'numer': 3, 'denom': 4}

More functions

Right now, our class doesn't do much beyond storing two integers, so let's add a simplify() function:

from math import gcd
class Fraction:
def __init__(self, numer: int, denom: int = 1):
if denom == 0:
raise Exception("Cannot initialize fraction with denominator 0")
self.numer = numer
self.denom = denom
def simplify(self):
# reduces fractions to lowest terms
g = gcd(abs(self.numer), abs(self.denom))
if g == 0:
pass # prevents divide by zero error
else:
self.numer /= g
self.denom /= g
# makes denominator positive if necessary
if self.denom < 0:
self.numer *= -1
self.denom *= -1
# casts numerator and denominator to integers
self.numer = int(self.numer)
self.denom = int(self.denom)

We've also added a clause in the constructor to catch if an instance of Fraction is intialized with a denominator of 0. Note that simplify() takes self as its first argument. This allows us to access instance variables that were initialized in the __init__() method. Now, our Fraction class has a function that makes it behave more like a rational number! But let's say we wanted to print our Fraction objects so that they would look like 3/5 or 1/2. If we try using print(), the output is less than useful:

frac = Fraction(1, 2)
print(frac)
# Output
<__main__.Fraction object at 0x000001E6A90C0C70>

Fortunately, we can use special class functions, denoted by flanking double underscores(__). In particular, we will define the __str__() function to create a custom string output when printing Fraction instances.

from math import gcd
class Fraction:
def __init__(self, numer: int, denom: int = 1):
if denom == 0:
raise Exception("Cannot initialize fraction with denominator 0")
self.numer = numer
self.denom = denom
def simplify(self):
# reduces fractions to lowest terms
g = gcd(abs(self.numer), abs(self.denom))
if g == 0:
pass # prevents divide by zero error
else:
self.numer /= g
self.denom /= g
# makes denominator positive if necessary
if self.denom < 0:
self.numer *= -1
self.denom *= -1
# casts numerator and denominator to integers
self.numer = int(self.numer)
self.denom = int(self.denom)
def __str__(self):
# first simplify the fraction
self.simplify()
# handle edge cases
if self.denom == 0:
return "undefined"
if self.denom == 1:
return str(self.numer)
# general string format
return "{}/{}".format(self.numer, self.denom)

Now, we can use the print() function with more success:

print(Fraction(2, 1)) # outputs 2
print(Fraction(3, 5)) # outputs 3/5

Inheritance

Inheritance is an essential feature in object-oriented programming languages. Inheritance is the ability for a class to derive properties and functions from another class. The class that inherits from another is called the derived (or child) class, while the class that is being inherited from is called the base (or parent) class.

The syntax for creating a class Child that inherits from a class Parent is as follows:

class Child(Parent):
pass

In fact, when we create any class in Python, we implicitly inherit from the object class. We could be thorough and create a class by writing class MyClass(object), but it is redundant to do so. As an example, suppose we have a class Triangle with a constructor and an area() function:

from math import sqrt
class Triangle:
def __init__(self, side1, side2, side3):
self.side1 = side1
self.side2 = side2
self.side3 = side3
def area(self):
# Using Heron's formula to calculate area
print("Using Heron's formula")
s = (self.side1 + self.side2 + self.side3) / 2
return sqrt(s * (s - self.side1) * (s - self.side2) * (s - self.side3))

Now, we want to create another class, EquilateralTriangle, that inherits from our Triangle class. Because an equilateral triangle has equal side lengths, its constructor will accept only one argument besides self:

from math import sqrt
class EquilateralTriangle(Triangle):
def __init__(self, side):
super().__init__(side, side, side)
def area(self):
# Using formula for area of an equilateral triangle
print("Using equilateral triangle formula")
return (self.side1 ** 2) * sqrt(3) / 4

The constructor for EquilateralTriangle uses the built-in super() function. This simply refers to the parent class, so when we call super().__init__(), we are calling the parent constructor and populating the three argument with the variable side. This means that an EquilateralTriangle still has three instance variables, side1, side2, and side3, but they are just initialized to the same value.

note

super() can be used to call other functions in the parent class as well, not just the __init__() function.

We also have another area() function in the child class, even though the same function exists in the parent class. This is called function (or method) overriding. We've added a print statement in each function to distinguish between the two. Take a look at what happens when we create an instance of Triangle and EquilateralTriangle and call the area() function on each:

tri = Triangle(3, 4, 5)
eq_tri = EquilateralTriangle(4)
print(tri.area())
print(eq_tri.area())
# Output
Using Heron's formula
6.0
Using equilateral triangle formula
6.928203230275509

We see that eq_tri uses thearea() function in the child class. But if we didn't implement an area() function in EquilateralTriangle, our code would still work because eq_tri would instead call the function in its parent class. This is why inheritance is so useful - it allows us to create similar classes without repeating ourselves and writing redundant code.

Overloading

Many operators and functions we use all the time are special in that they can be used with several data types. For example, the addition operator + can be used with types such as integers, strings, and lists, and the len() function can be used on strings, dictionaries, lists, and more. This is known as operation overloading or function overloading, respectively.

important

Function overloading also refers to multiple functions having the same name. In other languages such as Java and C++, we can overload a function by creating multiple functions of the same name but with different numbers, types, and/or orders of arguments. For example, in Java, we can overload an add() function to either take two or three arguments. When the program is run, the appropriate add() function will be used depending on the number of arguments.

// This function takes in two arguments
public int add(int x, int y) {
return x + y;
}
// This function takes in three arguments
public int add(int x, int y, int z) {
return x + y + z;
}

Python, however, doesn't support this type of overloading. We can work around this by using default values, as follows:

def add(x, y, z = 0):
return x + y + z

Let's revisit our Fraction class from before. As representations of numbers, we should be able to add two instances of Fraction, but how are we supposed to define the + operator in our class? As it turns out, if we try and add two objects together by writing obj1 + obj2, Python calls the function obj1.__add__(obj2). This means we can define the __add__ function in Fraction that takes in two arguments: the first being self as usual, and the second, conventionally labelled other, which refers to the second Fraction that we are trying to sum!

def __add__(self, other):
numer = (self.numer * other.denom) + (self.denom * other.numer)
denom = self.denom * other.denom
return Fraction(numer, denom)

Now, if we create two instances of Fraction, we can add them just as we would with any other number:

frac1 = Fraction(1, 2)
frac2 = Fraction(1, 3)
print(frac1 + frac2) # outputs 5/6

To create a complete representation of a fraction class, we would need to overload every mathematical operation compatible with rational numbers, but we'll let you do that yourself! (How could you use the functions for addition and multiplication to define subtraction and division?) Below is a list of common operators and functions as well as their internal Python representation:

Operator/FunctionExpressionInternal Representation
Additionobj1 + obj2obj1.__add__(obj2)
Subtractionobj1 - obj2obj1.__sub__(obj2)
Multiplicationobj1 * obj2obj1.__mul__(obj2)
Divisionobj1 / obj2obj1.__truediv__(obj2)
Floor Divisionobj1 // obj2obj1.__floordiv__(obj2)
Exponentiationobj1 ** obj2obj1.__pow__(obj2)
Less thanobj1 < obj2obj1.__lt__(obj2)
Less than or equal toobj1 <= obj2obj1.__le__(obj2)
Greater thanobj1 > obj2obj1.__gt__(obj2)
Greater than or equal toobj1 >= obj2obj1.__ge__(obj2)
Equal toobj1 == obj2obj1.__eq__(obj2)
Not equal toobj1 != obj2obj1.__ne__(obj2)
Lengthlen(obj)obj.__len__()
Indexobj[index]obj.__getitem___(index)
Membershipelem in objobj.__contains__(elem)
Display (Printing)print(obj)obj.__str__()

Lambda Functions

Lambda functions (also known as lambda expressions or anonymous functions) are simply functions defined without a name. In Python, they must only contain a single expression in the function body, which is then evaluated and returned. The syntax for declaring a lambda expression is as follows:

lambda arguments: expression

For example, let's say we wanted to create a simple function add that takes in two numbers as arguments and returns their sum. Without using lambda functions, we would have

def add(x, y):
return x + y

Equivalently, we can use lambda function syntax to create the same function:

add = lambda x, y: x + y

Calling the function via a statement such as add(2, 2) would output 4 in both cases.

However, lambda functions are typically not assigned to a variable, as in the example above. Instead, they are often used whenever we need a function for a short period of time. This is commonly encountered when we pass in functions themselves as arguments into other functions. Such functions that take in one or more functions as arguments are called higher-order functions, and we will introduce some common higher-order functions in the next section.

One example of a higher-order function is the built-in sorted() function, which is used to sort an iterable, such as a list:

mylist = ["banana", "pear", "apple"]
newlist = sorted(mylist)
# newlist is now ["apple", "banana", "pear"]

However, sorted() also has an optional argument key which takes in a function that decides the sorted order. If we wanted to sort our list based on the length of each word, we can do so as follows:

mylist = ["banana", "pear", "apple"]
newlist = sorted(mylist, key=lambda word: len(word))
# newlist is now ["pear", "apple", "banana"]

Here, the sorted() function applies the lambda function to each element in the list and uses its output (in this case, the length of each word) to determine the final order. We could have also achieved the same result by creating a function using the def keyword and passing it in as an argument for key, but lambda functions allow us to bypass this and create a function directly when we need it.

You can read more about the sorted() function here.

Map, Filter, Reduce

In the last section, we introduced lambda functions, which were a shorthand way of creating simple, single-line functions. Now, we will introduce several higher-order functions and also become more comfortable with using lambda syntax. The following higher-order functions all require an iterable as an argument. Put simply, an iterable is any object that can be used in a for loop as follows:

for element in iterable:
# do stuff

Some built-in iterables in Python include lists, tuples, dictionaries, and strings. We will be using lists as examples of iterables in most of our examples here. For a more rigorous explanation of iterables, you can view the documentation here.

Map

The map() function takes a function and an iterable as arguments and applies the function to each element in the iterable. It has the following syntax:

map(function, iterable, ...)

Suppose we had a list of test scores, but then we realized that one of the answers was incorrect and everybody was to receive an extra point. We could do so as follows:

scores = [90, 85, 97, 91, 87]
new_scores = []
for score in scores:
new_scores.append(score + 1)

With the map() function, we can make this code more concise:

scores = [90, 85, 97, 91, 87]
new_scores = list(map(lambda score: score + 1, scores))

These two pieces of code are equivalent, and they result in the list new_scores having scores [91, 86, 98, 92, 88].

note

The map() function doesn't return a list, but rather a map object (which is an iterator). If you want to store the result as a list or other object, you will need to cast the object to a list.

map() can also take in multiple iterables as arguments; however, function must have the same number of arguments as iterables passed into map(). For example, we can use map() to sum elements of multiple lists by index into a single list.

list1 = [1, 2, 3, 4]
list2 = [5, 6, 7, 8]
list3 = [9, 10, 11]
sum_list = list(map(lambda x, y, z: x + y + z, list1, list2, list3))
# sum_list is now [15, 18, 21]

In the case where iterables are not the same length, map() does not return an error, but it will end when it reaches the last element of the shortest list. Therefore, in the example above, sum_list only has three elements.

Filter

The filter() function does what its name suggests: it filters out elements of a list based on a function. The syntax for filter() is similar to that of map():

filter(function, iterable)

Note that filter only accepts a single iterable, and so function must only have a single argument. Furthermore, function must return a boolean. Then, each element in iterable is evaluated as True or False. If it evaluates True, the element remains; otherwise, it is filtered out. filter(), much like map(), returns a filter object, so casting is necessary to store it as a list.

Let us imagine that we have survey responses from a spreadsheet that we have imported it into some lists. One of them holds ratings for CS50 on a scale from 1 to 5. We want to find the average rating, but because not everyone has taken the class, some responses are blank, which leads to our list being littered with None values. We can easily remove these values from our list using filter():

ratings = [4, 5, None, 2, 4, None, None, 1, None, 5]
# attempting to call sum(ratings) returns an error
filtered_ratings = list(filter(lambda rating: rating, ratings))
average_rating = sum(filtered_ratings) / len(filtered_ratings)
# average_rating is 3.5

At first glance, our function doesn't seem to return a boolean. However, in Python, certain values are considered "false"; these include None, 0, the empty string '', and empty collections such as lists [], sets set(), tuples (), and dictionaries {}. Any other values are considered to be True. Our lambda function, which simply returns each element unchanged, views the None elements as False and subsequently filters them out, leaving us with just the ratings.

caution

If ratings instead had responses ranging from 0 to 5, the above code would not have worked as expected. Do you see why?

Going back to our new_scores list, we can easily filter for scores in the "A" range:

# new_scores is [91, 86, 98, 92, 88]
a_scores = list(filter(lambda score: score >= 90, new_scores))
# a_scores is now [91, 98, 92]

Reduce

reduce() (also known as fold in some other languages) takes a function and an iterable and returns a single value. Unlike map() and filter(), reduce() is defined in the functools module, so we will need an import statement to use this function. The syntax for reduce() is as follows:

reduce(function, iterable[, initial])

reduce() determines the return value through the following steps:

  1. First, reduce() takes the first two elements of the iterable and applies function to them, generating an intermediate value.
  2. Then, it takes this value and the third element of the iterable and applies function again, producing another value.
  3. This process is repeated until the end of the iterable is reached, and then a final value is returned.

If the optional initial argument is provided, then reduce() will first produce an intermediate value by applying function to the initial value and the first element of the iterable. The initial value comes before the first element in cases where function is not commutative. In addition, we see that reduce() requires a two-argument function.

Consider the following example:

from functools import reduce
numbers = [5, 3, 2, 7, 6]
product = reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, numbers)
# product is 1260

Alternatively, we can think of reduce() acting on numbers through a series of nested operations. In the example above, reduce() calculates the return value much like how we would calculate the product
((((5 * 3) * 2) * 7) * 6).

tip

When dealing with iterables that may be empty, consider providing an initial value that would not change the outcome of reduce(). Calling reduce() on an empty iterable will return the initial value if it is provided, but otherwise it will produce an error. We can make the above example more robust:

from functools import reduce
product = reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, [], 1)
# product is 1

Compare this to the following:

from functools import reduce
product = reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, [])
# raises TypeError: reduce() of empty sequence with no initial value

We can also find the maximum value in an iterable using reduce():

from functools import reduce
numbers = [5, 3, 2, 7, 6]
maximum = reduce(lambda x, y: x if x > y else y, numbers)
# maximum is 7

The single-line if ... else statement in the lambda function is a conditional expression (also known as a ternary operator). These are briefly discussed in the section on list comprehensions, but they are quite self-explanatory by reading the statement from left to right.

important

In the above example, using Python's built-in max() function would have been a much easier solution. Also, as of Python 3.8, prod() is available from the math module that makes calculating products via reduce() obsolete as well. In general, using Python's built-in functions instead of creating your own will make your code more readable and likely more efficient too!

List Comprehensions

Lists are one of the most important data types in Python. Often, we want to initialize a non-empty list. Suppose that we need a list consisting of the first ten positive even numbers. We could create the list as follows:

evens = []
for i in range(1, 11):
evens.append(i * 2)
# evens is now [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]

We also learned from the previous section that we can use map() to achieve the same goal:

evens = list(map(lambda x: x * 2, range(1, 11)))
# evens is now [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]

However, the map() syntax can be difficult to follow, and using a for loop creates the index variable i that remains after the loop has completed. There is a third solution that is both concise and does not create additional variables:

evens = [i * 2 for i in range(1, 11)]
# evens is now [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]

This is known as list comprehension.

List comprehension is an elegant way of creating lists from other iterables. List comprehensions have the following syntax:

new_list = [expression for element in iterable]

In the example above, expression used each element in range(1, 11) and multiplied it by 2. expression can also be a call to another function. Because of this, list comprehensions can be used in place of single-iterable map() functions. That is, given a single-argument function f,

new_list = list(map(f, iterable))

is equivalent to

new_list = [f(element) for element in iterable]

List comprehensions also support conditional statements with the following syntax:

new_list = [function for element in iterable if conditional]

If the condition is satisfied, then the value of expression for the particular element is added to the list. Otherwise, it is omitted. This yields an alternative solution for making the same evens list: we can iterate through the first 20 integers, removing those not divisible by two!

evens = [i for i in range(1, 21) if i % 2 == 0]
# evens is now [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]

Perhaps you've realized that we can use list comprehensions instead of filter() as well! Given some boolean function f,

new_list = list(filter(f, iterable))

is the same as

new_list = [element for element in iterable if f]

Here, expression is just element because we do not change any of the elements when using filter().

When we want to change elements that do not satisfy our conditional (as opposed to filtering them out), we use the following syntax:

new_list = [expression if conditional for element in iterable]

This is a mouthful, so let's illustrate with an example. Given the first ten positive integers, suppose we want to add three to any integer that is odd and square any integer that is even. We do so as follows:

more_evens = [i + 3 if i % 2 == 1 else i * i for i in range(1, 11)]
# more_evens is now [4, 4, 6, 16, 8, 36, 10, 64, 12, 100]

Here, we use a conditional expression inside the list comprehension. In Python, a conditional expression is written in the form

A if C else B

where A and B are expressions and C is a condition. If C evaluates to True, then A is returned; otherwise, it evaluates to B.

The code inside the list comprehension can be difficult to follow, but remember that we can call other functions in our expression:

def my_function(i):
return i + 3 if i % 2 == 1 else i * i
more_evens = [my_function(i) for i in range(1, 11)]

This simply splits our code into two more readable chunks.

note

When there is an else clause in our conditional (signifying changing elements instead of filtering), the conditional statement is moved to be before the for statement.

Python also supports set and dictionary comprehension in a similar manner to list comprehension. In fact, Python also allows for generator comprehension, although we will not discuss them in detail here. Generators are useful when iterating through large collections, and you can read more about them here.

There are still many, many Python topics beyond what we have covered here, but hopefully these guides have served as a solid introduction to the capabilities that Python has to offer. If you have any questions or would like to learn more, feel free to get in touch with anyone on HODP Board!